Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes, 1840)
STAR-EYE PARROTFISH
Carolines Parrotfish; Stareye Parrotfish; Calotomus xenodon Gilbert, 1890; Callyodon carolinus Valenciennes, 1840
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Scaridae   Calotomus

Calotomus carolinus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Calotomus carolinus

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Calotomus carolinus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Calotomus carolinus
Calotomus carolinus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Calotomus carolinus
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • initial phase : brown + orange below, tail fin margin white
  • terminal phase : blue-green, eye - radiating lines
  • teeth close-packed but not fused
  • side top jaw - canines
Dorsal rays IX, 10; anal rays III, 9; pectoral rays 13; median predorsal 3-4 (usually); a single row of 4-5 scales on cheek below eye; teeth not fully fused to form plates, the individual flattened teeth readily apparent on outer surface of jaws, their tips forming a jagged cutting edge, canines on side of rear of top jaw; no transverse flap under operculum; dorsal fin spines flexible; tail fin slightly rounded in juveniles, straight with pointed tips in adults.

Initial phase mottled reddish to greyish brown, shading to pale orange below; pectoral base dark; rear margin of tail narrowly white; body of terminal phase fish is a mixture of blue green and red brown, head blue green with pinkish orange lines radiating from the eye. Juvenile: body and fins green to green-brown with white and brown spots, two rows of white spots along flank, another along base of dorsal fin; vertical fins grey-green, flecked with brown and white, a large white patch at front of dorsal; pectorals clear; iris green.

Size: grows to 50 cm.

Inhabits rocky and coral reefs.

Depth: 3-25 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas; the tip of Baja to the SW Gulf of California, the Revillagigedos (where it is common), and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 25 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: benthic microalgae; benthic macroalgae.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=24; Southern limit=-2; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-90; Latitudinal range=26; Longitudinal range=25.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Herbivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 50 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Bellwood , D. R. and Choat, J. H., 1989., A description of the juvenile phase colour patterns of 24 parrotfish species (Family Scarida) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia., Records of the Australian Museum, 41:1-41.
  • Bellwood, D. R., 1991., A phylogenetic study of the parrotfishes family Scaridae (Pisces: Labroidei), with a revision of genera., Records of the Australian Museum, 20:1-86.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Cuvier , G. and Valenciennes, A., 1840., Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quatorzième. Suite du livre seizième. Labroïdes. Livre dix-septième. Des Malacoptérygiens., Histoire Naturelle Des Poissons, 14:1-464.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1890., A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer "Albatross" on the Pacific coast of North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of twelve new genera and ninety-two new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 13:49-126.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d905198d-3a11-49f1-858a-832cb6665337/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d905198d-3a11-49f1-858a-832cb6665337/
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Scaridae  
 Genus Calotomus  
  Calotomus carolinus    (Valenciennes, 1840) 
Provider: Chen, Li-Shu 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Callyodon brachysoma Callyodon carolinus Callyodon genistriatus Callyodon sandwicensis Calotomus irradians Calotomus sandvicensis Calotomus sandwicensis Calotomus snyderi Calotomus xenodon Cryptotomus albimarginatus Leptoscarus brachysoma details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); Fishbase(2006); Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002); Review and doubtful species of Scaridae of Taiwan(Liao et al., 2004)
Name Code: 382435
  IUCN Red List:NL      
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Calotomus carolinus
Calotomus carolinus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0248 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Calotomus&speciesname=carolinus ---> http://www.fishbase.se/summary/Calotomus-carolinus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Calotomus carolinus   (Valenciennes, 1840)

Carolines parrotfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Calotomus carolinus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Calotomus carolinus (Carolines parrotfish) Calotomus carolinus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Scaridae (Parrotfishes) > Sparisomatinae
Etymology: Calotomus: Greek, kalos, kallos = beautiful + Greek, tomos = section, cut (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 71 m (Ref. 58302 ).   Tropical, preferred ?; 30°N - 25°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific: widest ranging member of the genus, from East Africa to the Revillagigedo and Galapagos islands. Replaced by Calotomus viridescens in the Red Sea (Ref. 37816 ). Presence in Somalia to be confirmed (Ref. 30573 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5490 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 9; Vertebrae : 25. Grayish brown when fresh with scales with fine whitish markings, shading to brownish red ventrally; head paler ventrally, an indistinct orange-brown line from orbit to upper lip; posterior to orbit, 3 short dull reddish lines. Flexible dorsal spines. Caudal fin rounded in juveniles, double emarginate with slightly prolonged lobes in large males. Skin black around anus. Lateral line interrupted. Brownish red pelvic fins with blotches or spots. Dull reddish-brown iris.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits subtidal reef flats, and lagoon and seaward reefs to a depths of at least 27 m (Ref. 1602 ). Found in coral, rubble, seagrass (Ref. 41878 , 58302 ) and weedy areas (Ref. 9710 ). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Found singly or in small groups (Ref. 9710 ). Feeds on a variety of benthic encrusting algae, e.g., Padina (Ref. 37816 ) and seagrasses. A protogynous hermaphrodite which may only have secondary males. Caught with nets and other types of artisanal gear.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawning observed to occur off the reef front on the falling tide at the Aldabra Atoll.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Westneat, Mark | Collaborators

Bruce, R.W. and J.E. Randall , 1985. A revision of the Indo-West Pacific parrotfish genera Calotomus and Leptoscarus (Scaridae: Sparisomatinae). Indo-Pac. Fish. (5):32 p. (Ref. 525 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 94142 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00680 - 0.01938), b=3.10 (2.95 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

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