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Congridae
CONGER AND GARDEN EELS
Conger eels; Garden eels

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Rhynchoconger nitens
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Rhynchoconger nitens
Ariosoma gilberti
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Ariosoma gilberti

Ariosoma
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Ariosoma
Ariosoma gilberti
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Ariosoma gilberti

Heteroconger klausewitzi
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Heteroconger klausewitzi
Heteroconger pellegrini
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Heteroconger pellegrini

Chiloconger
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Chiloconger
Chiloconger dentatus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Chiloconger dentatus

Gnathophis
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Gnathophis
Gnathophis cinctus
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Gnathophis cinctus

Rhynchoconger nitens
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Rhynchoconger nitens
Ariosoma gilberti
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Ariosoma gilberti

Ariosoma gilberti
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Ariosoma gilberti
Gorgasia
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Gorgasia

Congridae
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Congridae
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • snout short,mouth at front,large lips
  • ll: all body
  • nostrils: at eye level
  • with pectorals
  • dorsal, anal and tail fins continuous
FAMILY CONGRIDAE

CONGER EELS, GARDEN-EELS

Congers have a typical eel-shaped body with a small gill opening, and the tail fin is continuous with the dorsal and anal fins, well developed lips; large eyes; lateral gill opening; origin of the dorsal fin above the pectoral; and a complete lateral line. hey differ noticeably from moray eels in having pectoral fins and a body that is nearly round at the front rather than compressed.

The family is divisible into three subfamilies with approximately 29 genera and about 119 species worldwide in tropical to temperate areas, and 12 members of 8 genera in the TEP: Congrinae (with well developed pectoral fins; about 25 genera, including single species of Rhynchoconger and Gnathophis in our region); Heterocongrinae, commonly known as garden eels (pectoral fins tiny or absent; four genera, with two genera and five species in our region); and Bathymyrinae (pectorals well developed; about five genera, with single species of Ariosoma, Chiloconger and Paraconger in our region). The reef- dwelling congers are generally nocturnal predators of fishes and crustaceans. The garden eels are found in large colonies that feed exclusively on plankton that is picked from passing currents. The flesh of larger conger eels is considered good eating.


References
  • Aburto-Oropeza , O. and Balart, E. F., 2001., Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California., Marine Ecology, 22:283-305.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Böhlke, E. B., 1989., Fishes of the Western North Atlantic., Sears Foundation for Marine Research1:655pp.
  • Castle, P. H. J., 1999., A new species of garden eel from the eastern Pacific with comments on *Heteroconger digueti* (Pellegrin) and related nominal species., Bull. Mar. Sci., 64:407-417.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. and Balart, E. F., 1997., Contribución al conocimiento de la ictiofauna de fondos blandos y someros de la Ensenada de La Paz y Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:139-150.
  • Cowan , G.I. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1974., Taenioconger canabus, a new heterocongrin eel (Pisces: Congridae) from Baja California, with a comparison of a closely related species., Copeia, 1974(1):55-60.
  • Eibl-Eibesfeldt , I. and Köster, F., 1983., Taenioconger klausewitzi, a new garden-eel from the Galapagos., Charles Darwin Foundation, Noticias de Galápagos., 38:26-27.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Garman, S., 1899., The Fishes. In: Reports of an exploration off the west coasts of Mexico, Central and South America, and off the Galapagos Islands, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross," during 1891. L.C.Z.L. Tannar, U.S.N. commanding XXVI., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 24:432pp.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1891., Descriptions of apodal fishes from the tropical Pacific. In: Scientific results of explorations by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 14:347-352.
  • González Navarro , E. and Saldierna Martínez, R., 1997., Zooplancton de la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S. (1990-1991). En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:43-58.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Kanazawa, R. H., 1961., Paraconger, a New Genus with Three New Species of Eels (Family Congridae)., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 113:1-42.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Myers , G.S. and Wade, C.B., 1941., Four new genera and ten new species of eels from the Pacific coast of tropical America., Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 9(4):65-111.
  • Nelson, J.S., 1984., Fishes of the World (Third edition)., John Wiley and Sons:523pp.
  • Ogilby,., 1898., New genera and species of fishes., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 23:280-299.
  • Pellegrin, J., 1923., Sur un Poison apode nouveau du golfe de Californie et sa biologie., Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de L'Académie des Sciences, 177:789-790.
  • Raju, S. N., 1985., Congrid Eels of the Eastern Pacific and Key to their Leptocephali., NOAA Tech. Rept., \.
  • Rosenblatt, R.H., 1958., The status and synonomy of the eastern Pacific eel Ariosoma gilberti (Ogilby)., Copeia, 1958:52-54.
  • Rosenblatt, R.H., 1967., The osteology of the congrid eel Gorgasia punctata and the relationships of the Heterocongrinae., Pac. Sci., 21:91-97.
  • Rubio , R. E. A. and Estupiñan, F., 1990., Ictiofauna del Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga, un Analisis de su Estructura y Perspectivas para su Manejo., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :660-670.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.
  • Wade, C.B., 1946., Two new genera and five new species of apodal fishes from the eastern Pacific., Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 9(7):181-213.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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