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Dactyloscopidae
SAND STARGAZERS
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Dactyloscopus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactyloscopus
Dactyloscopus fimbriatus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactyloscopus fimbriatus

Dactyloscopus pectoralis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactyloscopus pectoralis
Dactyloscopus byersi
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactyloscopus byersi

Dactyloscopus zelotes
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactyloscopus zelotes
Dactyloscopus zelotes
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactyloscopus zelotes

Dactyloscopus pectoralis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactyloscopus pectoralis
Dactyloscopus pectoralis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactyloscopus pectoralis

Gillellus chathamensis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Gillellus chathamensis
Gillellus arenicola
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Gillellus arenicola

Gillellus searcheri
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Gillellus searcheri
Myxodagnus macrognathus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Myxodagnus macrognathus

Dactylagnus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactylagnus
Dactylagnus mundus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Dactylagnus mundus

Dactyloscopidae
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Dactyloscopidae
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • eyes top of head
  • operculum: fringe of skin flaps
  • dorsal and anal fins- long bases
  • mouth very oblique, opens up
  • large scales
  • ll: bent, complete
FAMILY DACTYLOSCOPIDAE

SAND-STARGAZERS

The common name of this group is derived from the position of the eyes which are on top of the head, sometimes protruding or on stalks. Other features include an upturned, fringed mouth; a protruding lower jaw; tubular nostrils; dorsal fin continuous or divided with VII- XXIII spines and 12-36 soft rays; upper part of operculum with a frill of finger-like "fimbriae"; each pelvic fin with three thickened rays that are free at the tips; and large smooth scales.

Sand Stargazers are "lie and wait" predators of small fishes and invertebrates. They frequently burrow into the sandy substratum with only the eyes, snout, and mouth protruding. These fishes are seldom seen except by scientific collectors using chemicals. Sand Stargazers are small, sand dwelling fishes found only on the Pacific and Atlantic coast of the Americas, in tropical and warm temperate waters. There are 46 species in nine genera, with 23 species (all endemics) in five genera (one endemic) in our region. The various genera were revised by Dawson (1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1982).


References
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Dawson, C.E., 1969., A new eastern Pacific sand stargazer Dactyloscopus byersi (Pisces: Dactyloscopidae)., Copeia, 1969:44-51.
  • Dawson, C.E., 1974., Studies on eastern Pacific sand stargazers (Pisces: Dactyloscopidae). 1. Platygillelus new genus with descriptions of new species., Copeia, 1974(1):39-55.
  • Dawson, C.E., 1975., Studies on eastern Pacific sand stargazers (Pisces: Dactyloscopidae). 2.Genus Dactyloscopus, with descriptions of new species and subspecies., Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. Sci. Bull., 22:1-61.
  • Dawson, C.E., 1976., Studies on eastern Pacific sand stargazers. 3. Dactylagnus and Myxodagnus with description of a new species and subspecies., Copeia, 1976(1):13-43.
  • Dawson, C.E., 1977., Studies on eastern Pacific sand stargazers (Pisces: Dactyloscopidae). 4. Gillellus, Sindoscopus new genus, and Heteristius with description of new species., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 41(2):125-160.
  • Doyle, K. D., 1998., Phylogeny of the sand stargazers (Dactyloscopidae: Blennioidei)., Copeia, 1998:76-96.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1890., A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer "Albatross" on the Pacific coast of North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of twelve new genera and ninety-two new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 13:49-126.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1892., Scientific results of explorations by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer "Albatross." 22. Descriptions of thirty-four new species of fishes collected in 1888 and 1889, principally among the Santa Barbara Islands and in the Gulf of California., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 14:539-566.
  • Gill, T.N., 1861., Monograph of the tridigitate uranoscopoids., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 13:263-271.
  • Gill, T.N., 1863., On the limits and affinity of the family of leptoscopoids., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 15:501-506.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1896., A check-list of the fishes and fish-like vertebrates of North and Middle America., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 21:207-584.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part III., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:2183-3136.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1883., Catalogue of the fishes collected by Mr. John Xantus at Cape San Lucas, which are now in the United States National Museum, with descriptions of eight new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 5(1882):353-371.
  • Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1928., The marine fishes of Panama. Part III., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:709-1045.
  • Miller , and Briggs,., 1962., Dactyloscopus amnis, a new sand stargazer from rivers of the Pacific slope of southern Mexico., Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (627):1-11.
  • Myers , G.S. and Wade, C.B., 1946., New fishes of the families Dactyloscopidae, Microdesmidae and Antennariidae from the west coast of Mexico and the Galapagos Islands with a brief account of the use of rotenone fish poisons in Ichthyological collecting., Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 9(6):151-179.
  • Nelson, J.S., 1984., Fishes of the World (Third edition)., John Wiley and Sons:523pp.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Reid, E.D., 1935., Two new fishes of the families Dactyloscopidae and Clinidae from Ecuador and the Galapagos., Copeia, 1935:163-166.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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