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Uranoscopidae
STARGAZERS
Stargarzers

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Kathetostoma averruncus
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Kathetostoma averruncus
Kathetostoma averruncus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Kathetostoma averruncus

Kathetostoma averruncus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Kathetostoma averruncus
Kathetostoma averruncus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Kathetostoma averruncus

Astroscopus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Astroscopus
Astroscopus zephyreus
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Astroscopus zephyreus

Astroscopus zephyreus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Astroscopus zephyreus
Astroscopus zephyreus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Astroscopus zephyreus

Uranoscopidae
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Uranoscopidae
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • head wide, high; eyes above
  • 1 d
  • 1 d
  • mouth large, vertical, lips with skin flaps
  • behind operculum: large spine
  • pelvic under opercle
FAMILY URANOSCOPIDAE

STARGAZERS

Stargazers are similar in general appearance to the Toadfishes (Batrachoididae). They have a large robust, somewhat flattened head and a body that progessively becomes more compressed posteriorly. The mouth is large with fringed lips and the eyes are directed upwards. The dorsal fin lack spines in many species and the pelvics are under the throat. There usually are a pair of large, double-grooved poison spines (with a venom gland at the base), immediately above the pectoral fin and behind the opercle. In some genera these spines are blunt and skin covered and not evident. Venom from these fishes has caused death in humans, therefore they should not be handled. In addition, members of the genus Astroscopus have electric organs formed from modified eye muscles. They are capable of delivering a shock of up to 50 volts.

The family is distributed worldwide in tropical and warm temperate seas. They occur in shallow coastal waters as well as deeper parts of continental shelves. There are approximately eight genera and 50 species, with two endemic species in two genera in the eastern Pacific and in our region.


References
  • Balart, E.F., Gonzáles-García, J. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C., 2000., Notes on the biology of Cephalurus cephalus and Parmaturus xaniurus (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae) from the west coast of Baja California Sur, México., Fishery Bulletin, 98:219-221.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Fierstine , H. L. and Werner, R. G., 1963., A new northern record of the Smooth Stargazer., Calif. Fish & Game, 49:50-52.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1897., Descriptions of twenty-two new species of fishes collected by the steamer Albatross, of the United States Fish Commission., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 19:437-457.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jesus-Roldan, M., Ellis, LL. and Galvan-Magaña, F., 1993., Geographical and size records of the electric stargazer (Astroscopus zephyreus) Gilbert and Starks, 1896 (Pisces: Uranoscopidae)., Calif. Fish & Game, 79:171-172.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Humann, P.H., 1996., New records of Galápagos fishes., Charles Darwin Foundation, Noticias de Galápagos., 56:18-26.
  • McCosker, J.E., 1987., The fishes of the Galapagos Islands., Oceanus, 30:28-32.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1928., The marine fishes of Panama. Part III., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:709-1045.
  • Minckley, W.L., 2002., Fishes of the lowermost colorado river, its delta, and estuary: a commentary on biotic change. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:63-78.
  • Nelson, J.S., 1984., Fishes of the World (Third edition)., John Wiley and Sons:523pp.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Wade, C.B., 1946., New fishes in the collections of the Allan Hancock Foundation., Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 9(8):215-235.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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